Point 1. 병렬구조
1. Mr.Brown is a lawyer, a politician, anda writer.
2. Honey was used to preserve fruit and to make foods.
3. I can hear her talking, yelling orcomplaining.
4. Nothing can be checked out orrenewed without a library card.
5. A trip to the beach means sand between your toes, salt water in your mouth and the aromatic sea air in your nose.
1. His name is well-known bothat home and abroad.
2. You must answer eitheryes orno.
3. We could go neitherforwards nor backwards.
4. I found the key not in the house but in the garden.
1. For most people, exercising is better thandieting as a way to lose weight.
2. Children's views are as important asthose of adults.
3. Too often we give children answers to remember rather thanproblems to solve.
4. Your opinion is different frommine.
5. I prefer reading books to watching television.
Point2. 원급 표현
1. Listening is just as important asspeaking in conversation.
2. Science can destroy as easily asit can create.
3. A horse is not as big asan elephant
4. Please pay me back as soon aspossible.(=as soon as you can)
5. The star proved to beten times as large asthe sun.
Point3. 비교급 표현
1. Fact is sometimes stranger thanfiction.
2. You can travel more cheaplyat certain times of the year.
3. Climbing the mountain was much3)more difficultthan I had imagined.
4. The morewe know about him, the betterwe can understand his novels.
5. The storm grew stronger and stronger, and the waves rose,
6. Exports have risen by no less than80% in the last five years.
Point4. 최상급 표현
1. Jupiter is the largestplanet inthe solar system.
2. February is the shortest of all the months.
3. What is the saddestmovie that you've ever seen?
4. Noriver in South America is as long as the Amazon.
5. Nothingis more precious thanhealth.
★ 가정법 과거(현재사실 반대 or 현실에서 일어날 것 같지 않은 일을 가정할 때)
if 주어 + 과거동사~, 주어 + 조동사의 과거(would,could,might) + 동사원형~.
★ 가정법 과거완료(과거 사실과 반대되는 일을 가정)
if 주어 + had + p.p ~ , 주어 + 조동사의 과거(would,could,might) + have + p.p~.
★ if의 생략: if 절의 동사 또는 조동사가 were, should, had일때 if가 생략되고 주어와 동사의 어순이 도치됨
1. If Fred paid more attention in class, he would getbetter results.
2. If astronauts visited Mars, we could learna lot about the planet.
3. If I had readthe manual, I would not have madethis mistake.
4. If the car hadn't stopped in time, the child would have beenbadly injured.
5. Should you fall ill, the company would payyour hospital expenses.
6. Had you taken a taxi, you would have gothere on time.
Point6. I wish, as if(though), it's time~ 가정법
★ I wish + 주어 + 과거동사(wish와 같은 시점)
I wish + 주어 + had p.p(wish보다 앞선 시점)
★ as if(though) + 주어 + 과거동사(주절의 동사와 같은 시점)
as if(though) + 주어 + had p.p(주절의 동사보다 앞선 시점)
★4)It is time + (that) 주어 + 과거동사
1. I wish English grammar were easier.
2. I wish I had gone with you to the opera last night.
3. They treated me as if I were a child.
4. She acted as thought we had never metbefore.
5. It's time we came to a conclusion.
Point7. 숨어있는 가정법: 가정법이 반드시 if를 포함하는 것은 아니야~ if가 없어도 과거형 조동사를 보면 가정법인지 의심해볼 필요가 있지!
★ without ~이 없다면 (=if it were not for)
~이 없었다면 (=if it had not been for)
otherwise 그러지 않으면; 그러지 않았다면
1. Without music, our life would be dry as a desert.
= If it were not for music, our life~)
2. I started for the airport at once, otherwise I would have missed the plane.
=~, if I hadn't started for the airport at once, I ~.
☆ 여기까지 출제되면 너무 어렵겠지만 가정법이 나온 김에 혼합가정법5)이라는 것도 알아두자!
If she had married Harry, she would behappy now.
Point8. 컴마 다음에 오는 관계사절:
관계사절의 계속적 용법(관계사절은 선행사에 대한 보충적 설명을 한다. who,which만 계속적 용법으로 쓰이고 that,what은 쓸 수 없다.)
1. I met Sally, who asked me to give you this.
(I met Sally, and she asked me to give you this.)
2. He wrote Sally a long letter, which she sent back unopened.
(He wrote Sally a long letter, but she sent it back unopened.)
3. The clock struck thirteen, which made everyone laugh.
(The clock struck thirteen, and it made everyone laugh.)
1. I will give it to whoever arrives first. -~하는 누구든지, 누가~하더라도
2. You can choose whatever you like. -~하는 무엇이든지, 무엇을~하더라도
3. You can contact us by phone or e-mail, whichever you prefer. -~하는 어느 것이든지, 어느 것을 ~하더라도
4. Whatever happens, we must stay together. -~하는 무엇이든지, 무엇을 ~하더라도
5. Whenever I hear this song, I think of you. -~하는 언제든지
6. Wherever you go, I'll be there beside you. -~하는 어디든지
7. However much they earn, they will never be satisfied. -아무리,어떻게~하더라도
★ 특정 어구를 강조하기 위해서, 또는 다른 문법상의 이유로 주어와 동사의 위치가 바뀌는 경우가 있는데 이를 도치라고 하는거야!
1. Not a word did she sayall the while
(= She did not say a word all the while.)
2. Only6)in this way can we explainthe mystery.
(=We can explain the mystery only in this way.)
3. Outside of the door was a sign which said: "Danger! Keep out!"
(= A sign was outside of the door which said: "Danger! Keep out!"
4. Great was his joywhen he gained freedom.
(=His joy was great when he gained freedom.)
5. There are fifty statesin the USA.
(=Fifty states are there in the USA.)
1. It was a year ago today that I first met you.
2. It was not until yesterday that I knew the fact.
★ 반복어구의 생략
1. Mr.Williams is a vegetarian, but his wife isn't.
2. You can use my dictionary if you want to.
★ 부사절에서의 S+be동사의 생략
3. I read through Hamlet when (I was) in the hospital.
4. Though (I was) tired, he worked till late at night.
1. Education, (I believe), must continue through life.
2. The changes will affect thousands, (if not millions), of ordinary people.
3. The sun, (which is a star), is 93 million miles from the earth.
1. Muhammad Ali, the great boxer, could "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee."
2. The continent of Asia is the largest in the world.
3. He majored botany, or the study of plants.
4. There's a possibility that there is life on other planets.
1. Many have tried, but few have succeeded.
2. It rarely(=scarcely, hardly) rains in the desert.
3. The rich are not alwayshappier than the poor.
Point16. 조동사의 관용적 표현
1. I cannot helplovingher in spite of her many faults.
(=I cannot but loveher~.)
2. We cannot7)praise his courage too much.
3. He may well8)be surprised at the news.
4. We may as well9)go home. There's nothing more to do.
5. I'd like togo out for dinner in an Italian restaurant tonight.
6. I'd rather walk than ride on a bus.
Point17. 동명사의 관용적 표현
1. I went joggingbefore breakfast this morning.
2. She felt like cryingto hear the news that he died.
3. I'mhaving trouble(=difficulty, a hard time) (in) doingthis job on the computer.
4.It is no use talkingwith him.
5. They spent the whole evening arguing with each other.
6. There is no saying10)what may happen.
7. We are very busy preparing for the school festival.
8. Your ideas are certainly worth considering.
1)등위접속사 관련 수일치 문제-복수
2)상관접속사 관련 수일치 문제-단수
3)비교급 강조표현: much, still, a lot, far
4)진작 그렇게 했어야 하는데 하지 않고 있다는 불평과 비판의 의미
5)과거에 대한 가정과 현재에 대한 가정을 함께 말할 때는, 가정법과거완료와 가정법과거가 혼합된다.
6)only가 부사(구,절)를 동반하여 문두에 있는 경우에 주어와 동사가 도치된다. 그러나 only가 주어를 수식하는 경우에는 도치되지 않는다(Only three people came the class.)
7)cannot ~ too 아무리 ~해도 지나치지 않다.
8)may well 아마 ~ 일 것이다. ~ 하는 것은 당연하다.
9)may as well~(as) (~하느니) ~ 하는 게 더 낫다.
10)There is no v-ing ~하는 것은 불가능하다.